The Journey of Whitley 042

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Jellyfish is a water animal with a distinct 'phylum' (classification of 'kingdom') known as Cnidaria. The motor axon makes direct synaptic contact with the muscle epithelium that makes up the bell of the jellyfish and so the propagating calcium spike induces the weak contractions responsible for propulsion during the regular slow swimming the animal performs when feeding.
This includes Scyphozoans, the true jellyfish; Staurozoans, or stalked jellyfish, which remain in the polyp stage and attach to the ocean floor rather than swim around; Cubozoans, or box jellyfish; and Hydrozoans, a complex class of animals that often produce small medusae resembling simple jellyfish.

Because they are common in both temperate and tropical waters, they can tolerate temperature ranges anywhere between 42-88 F (6-31 C). Although they can survive in brackish water, a salinity level (specific gravity) of 1.023 will mimic their native marine environment.
There are about 10,000 cnidarian species, roughly half of which are anthozoans (a family that includes corals and sea anemones); the other half are scyphozoans, cubozoans, and hydrozoans (what most people refer to when they use the word "jellyfish").

Depending on the species these stings can be very painful, but apart from the occasional thought about how curious these animals look, few of us rarely consider these animals or indeed recognise them as living fossils, unchanged for over 600 million years.
Marker shapes illustrate the type of aquatic robot, from biological soft robots such as the medusoid and robotic ray made from rat cardiomyocytes seeded on silicon scaffolds ( 9 , 10 ) to purely mechanical robots, including bioinspired robots ( 3 , 7 , 33 , 34 ) and an AUV ( 35 ). Marker colors illustrate the type of propulsion, including medusan (jellyfish swimming), thunniform (fish swimming), rajiform (ray swimming), and propeller-driven (AUVs).

jellyfish are compelling model organisms for more energy-efficient underwater vehicles because of their low cost of transport (COT; or mass-specific energy input per distance traveled) ( 1 ). Existing robotic mimics of swimming animals composed entirely of engineered components can achieve velocities comparable to natural animals, but with orders of magnitude less efficiency than jellyfish ( 2 - 7 ). In contrast, biohybrid jellyfish robots that incorporate live animals offer potential advantages that address the grand challenges of robotics ( 8 ), by using the jellyfish structure and muscle for actuation, solving the power requirements by leveraging natural feeding behaviors to extract chemical energy from prey in situ, and recovering from damage via wound healing processes that are inherent to the animal.
6. Within 18-30 days the medusae attain sexual maturity contingent upon mean water temperature (18-22 days for a mean temperature of 72º F; 25-30 days for a mean temperature of 68º F). Upon reaching maturity, Turritopsis nutricula jellyfish range in size from approximately 4-5 mm and consist of between 80-90 tentacles.

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